Kamis, 29 Maret 2012


Oleh Muhammad Julijanto
Abstract: Bagi masyarakat Indonesia keterlibatan agama dalam merespon berbagai masalah kehidupan sosial tampak semakin jelas dan signifikan. Interaksi antara Islam dan berbagai masalah aktual, bukanlah produk sejarah yang telah selesai, melainkan suatu proses yang berkelanjutan. Islam diyakini memiliki ajaran yang sangat kuat untuk membangun masyarakat madani. Dengan catatan, apabila ajaran Islam dipahami secara utuh, komprehensif, terpadu, dan aktual. Dalam konteks pembentukan negara Indonesia peranan Islam cukup signifikan bila melihat perdebatan yang terjadi di kalangan anggota BPUPKI. Artikel ini akan membahas keIslaman sebagai inspirasi terbentuknya Indonesia.
Keyword: Islam, Indonesia, Gerakan Islam
The religion was believed in could resolve various problems, both that was mental-spiritual and physical-material. Because of that the religion was always involved in by his adherents responding to various problems that were dealt with by him, so as the presence of the religion could be functionally felt by his existence in the real life.
For the Indonesian community the involvement of the religion in responding to various problems of the social life of appearance was increasingly clear and significant. The religion became the source of legitimisation towards various problems that were dealt with by his adherent, good in the context of the individual, until the problem had a nation and was national. Because of the history factor and cultural, Islam in Indonesia was the religion that lived and vital. Currently Islam always is involved in in the process of the transformation from the position of the quantity heading the position of the quality.
In konsteks this, the interaction between Islam and various actual problems, not the history product that was finished, but a continuous process. Therefore, Indonesia must continue to grow as the based nation ethics and moral him Islam. A nation that grew in the basis of strong ethics will be delivered to the nation that advanced and strong. His problem the Indonesian nation was to be classified as the nation soft state; the good and bad concept very-very bolted. The ethos furqan (the distinguishing feature between that was true and that was wrong) this nation was weak.

According to Nurcholish Madjid, this happened because of the method penganutan the religion of most Moslems was formal and symbolic, that was dominated by the historic-sociological category. As a result the symbolism was more emphasised than the substance, for example the Islam Country or Islam islamic canon law, or Islam details other. So as this matter rarely was not contra-productive with the Islam values that were true .
Where the source of the spring to Indonesiaan was Islam. This source afterwards flowed and formed the bend in rivers that supplied requirements for life as a nation and a country. However together with the time expansion (the reform era) this source whether by chance, deliberate or did not begin to be forgotten even to have the trend was “removed”, by some of the Islam circles personally and from the outsider.
What was the trend to forget and remove this source that afterwards caused the occurrence of the tension continually between Islam and the country. Some Islam groups believed that this country was illegal because that had the right to be “made adversarial”,” to the other side of the believing then country that they as the movement ekstrimis as far as the terrorist. This article would menggupas Islam relations and the country, especially how the Islam role in forming Indonesia just? .
About the Islam arrival to Indonesia, there is now the historian who said directly from the Arabian land, now other said came from Gujarat, Persia and Egypt. As for his bearer, there were those who believed that Islam was brought by the Arabian merchants, now that was other said the mystics really played a role in bringing the Islam religion to Indonesia.
The problem of politics in Islam started from succession post the death of Rasulullah Muhammad Saw, the friends of the meeting prophet to determine who the replacement of the prophet as the leader of group. Because of the prophet in a nas manner did not give the special message who his replacement.
Politics as a containing conception the provisions about the source of the authority of the country, the implementation of the authority of the country, the foundation and the determination method of the authority was given, and implementation responsibility of this authority. The understanding of piety of various problems of politics that was sent by leading figures evidently different. Several thinkers Islam that konsen towards the problem of politics in part: Handsome Al Bana, Sayyid Quthb, Rasyid Ridha, Al-Maududi, Ali Abd Al-Raziq, Thaha Huesein and Muhammad Husein Haikal.
The difference of thinking terpolarisasi to: 1). Islam was the Religion that was perfect and complete in the form of the regulation for all the aspect of the life of humankind, including life as a country. 2). Islam was the religion in the West understanding, available his relations with the state affair. 3). In Islam was not gotten by the system ketatanegaraan, but was received a set of the order the value of ethics for life as a country. The understanding of comprehensive and intact piety will produce the understanding of comprehensive and intact politics also. And in turn could create the condition that enabled the religion to grow and developed good.
Islam was in Indonesia acknowledged as the religion that revered the values of humanity. The egalitarian values (kesederajatan), democracy (appreciated the person’s other opinion and togetherness), justice, honesty, the social solidarity and humanity, that were further were known as the community madani (civil society), was expected to be able to colour the face of the Indonesian nation politics in the middle of the movement of the dynamics of the reform flow. Islam was believed in had the teaching that was very strong to build the community madani. With the note, if this Islam teaching was understood in an intact manner, comprehensive, solidest, and actual .
According to Masykuri Abdillah (1995: 1-2) Indonesia was one of the nations most the plural in the world and the people’s majority him was muslim (88%), and Islam was sources in the formation the value, the standard and the behaviour of his community so as Islam had the important role in the social life, politics and cultural in this country. With (17 thousand) the available island in his territory, both that was big and small, both that was occupied and that not, Indonesia also was the biggest archipelagic state in the world and the country with the most multitudinous background. With approximately 400 ethnic groups and the available language under their auspices, Indonesia also was a country with very heterogenous culture .
Timur nations then, like Indonesia, had the background of the life of politics that was ripe in his community’s order. Apart from institutional available politics, political thinking in the East world like Indonesia available was the world of quite dynamic thinking. Increased with various influences that were present here, both that was carried by the ancestors personally, colonisers and the traders and the disseminator of the religion gave the foundation of political thinking that was rich in various colour features of the current .
Moreover, must be admitted that thinking that most affected the world of politics anywhere was the West tradition of political thinking. In Indonesia this, the influence not only along with the entry of foreign strengths to the Indonesian Archipelago earth, but also the progress that was gained by them blew to other places in this world where they were present. Meaning that, the spreading of ideas of politics and hardware that were with him of following the existence flow and their adventure to various corners of the world. The last era from colonialism witnessed the Boedi Oetomo birth, Sjarikat Islam, Muhammadiyah, Communist Party, Taman Siswa, Nahdlatul Ulama, Partai national, Parindra et cetera as him, recorded the emergence of thinkings like Tjipto Mangunkusumo, Tjokroaminoto, Agus Salim, Dr. Soetomo, Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tan Malacca, Soekarno, Moh Hatta, Natsir, Sjahril, and Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana et cetera. Many political thinkers who emerged in Indonesia at that point reminded us of the period of the middle age and Renaissance in Europe that was full of the upheaval of the thinker of political thinkers. This produced a map of the Indonesian political earth that in part was coloured by the difference of opinion, the dissimilarity of the train of thought, as well as the clash of the ideology.
Herbert Feith divided the development of Indonesian political thinking into three the different period: the first period, the period of the armed revolution (1945-1949), relations between the colonial era and the independence era still were very clear appeared, especially because political thinkings at that time still were having the shape of the privilege from several the educated group that at first pioneered the national movement in the colonial time and afterwards met themselves as the leaders from a republic that just was established by them together.
The second period, the liberal period (1950-1959), several political thinkers just sprang up by old people. This period was influenced by the conflict between the party and the excessive ideological conflict that caused the thinker young released himself to be not directly involved in the game of actual politics. The third period, the period of the guided democracy time (1959-1965) was marked by forcing of acceptance of ideas of Soekarno’s politics like socialism in an Indonesian style and Nasakom (Nationalism, Agamaisme, and Communism). Political thinking that earlier developed free from various backgrounds of the thinking current, suddenly was in the narrow capillary pipe that required everyone to be carried the flow to one political thinking (hlm. 3-4). The religion and the country were two different forms and to one another had garapan his field was their respective, so as his existence must be separated and might not to one another carried out the intervention. Be based on in the understanding that dikotomis this, then the current positive law was the law that really came from the human agreement through social contract and did not have his connection with the religious law (islamic canon law).
Religious relations and the country that was antagonistik where the country really suspected Islam as the strength that was potential in competing with the existence of the Country. On the other hand, Moslems personally in the period had ghirah that to bring about Islam as the source of the ideology in undertaking the government. Religious relations and the country that were accommodating as a result of the existence of Moslems’s Indonesian trend increasingly understood the policy of the country, especially in the context of the implementation and acceptance of the Kepancasilaan the one and only principle. The policy emergence of the country towards Islam also became the part that was important in understanding religious relations and the country in the period early the 1980 ‘s, for example the ratification of the Pendidikan Nasional BILL, RUU Peradilan Agama, Munculnya ICMI as well as the Foundation’s emergence of the Muslim Service Kepancasilaan that built the mosque in various areas.
Why the existence of Islam relations accommodation and the Country? Because first, from the government spectacles, Islam was the strength that could not be ignored that in the long run if being placed in the position of the edge will cause the problem of quite complicated politics. Because of that diakomodasi to stifle the conflict was earlier. Secondly, the government circle was received by several figures that not the phobia towards Islam, in fact had the strong Islamic foundations. Like Emil Salim, BJ Habibie, Akbar Tanjung etc.. Thirdly, the existence of the change in the perception, the attitude and the orientation of politics in the Islam circle personally.
Bahtiar Effendi determined two reasons for displaying the country did accommodation towards Islam ; first, during the last 25 years, Moslems experienced the process of the significant socio-economic-politics mobilisation. This was caused by the development of economics and expanded him access to modern higher education. They were transformed into the middle level entity, both socially, economics and politics.
Secondly, the existence of the transformation of thinking and the behaviour of new Islam generation politics. Moslems experienced the transformation of the intellectual and aktivisme that all was legalistik formalistik to more substansialistik. The struggle for independence achieved the end point with diprokamasikan Indonesian independence on August 17 1945. Nevertheless the consequences of independence with the establishment of an independent country were the need dirumsukan the fundamental foundation that was the philosophical base this state regulation of the life order in a formulation that was acknowledged as Dasar regulations.
The search for the form of the country that was ideal by the founders and the framer of the Indonesian country pushed the Islam emergence of the country’s conception to the surface of the Indonesian political arena. In the beginning period of rumours independence of the Islam country caused two Islam branches to begin bersimpangan the road in mensikapi the problem of the formulation of the foundation of the country. The Islam branch the bureaucrat and snobbish that in this case afterwards was known with the nationalist-secular group to refuse the country’s Islam conception. They considered that the Indonesian country must be built on the base sosio-culture the firm community. And that significant not the Islam country. Because of that they formulated the foundation of the Indonesian country merdekan in accordance with the root of the nation culture that developed in the life of the people. Now the Islam branch that was other that afterwards was known with the nationalist-Islami group mengendaki a foundation of the originating country direct from the Islam teaching.
In the context of the formation of the Indonesian country the Islam role was significant enough when seeing the debate that happened in the member’s circle BPUPKI (the Penyelidik Body Persiapan efforts for Indonesian Independence) was seen from the historic data the membership composition of the Group of Muslim. All the member BPUPKI numbering 62 people (as many as 6 people were added afterwards). In his book that was entitled the Historis Growth of the Dasar Formula of the Country and a Reflection, Prawoto Mangkusasmito, one of the second-hand important leading figures the Masyumi party, recorded only 15 representatives of the Islam Group/Nasionalis Islami (around 20 percent) that became the member BPUPKI. Sedang the rest, 80 percent, was representatives of the Group of the Nationality. The composition of this kind stayed reflected in the formation of committees, including the UUD compilation committee 1945.
BPUPKI, that was formed on April 29 1945 and was declared by the Commander of the Japanese Military in Java on May 28 1945, held his session in two stages. The session of the first stage took place from May 29 -1 in June, and the second stage from June 10-16 1945. BPUPKI was formed by the Indonesian leaders following the Japanese promise to give independence to the Indonesian nation.
There were two important groups that became the member BPUPKI at that time. Dr. Mohammad Hatta, one of the proclaimers and the perpetrators in his book Proklamasi seconds 1945 acknowledged the two groups as the Nationality group and the Islam Group. The difference of the attitude from various Muslim groups concerning the problem above also reflected the condition for Muslim who formed the background of the conflict concerning the foundation of the country and the country’s Islam conception personally for the objective. In afterwards the day evidently the idea of the Islam country was understood in a different manner between the Tradisionalis group and Modernis from the group Nationalist-Islami that afterwards was known with the group of the student personally. The difference concerning the idea and the concept of the Islam country that originally with very strong was maintained by the Modernis group as part of the realisation of the idea of the Islam struggle, in the last period began to be more unpopular in fact the taboo to be discussed. Nevertheless the idea and gegasan the foundation of the Islam struggle apparently still continued to remain as the source of the inspiration of various social Islam movements and preaching .
Abdul Munir Mukhlan elaboret that the change in the attitude towards the concept of the Islam country permanently maintained the idea and the idea of the Islam struggle to push the Islam emergence of thinking reform contemporary both in the political field and theology and science especially the law fiqih . Some kencenderungan Islam thinking that became the rules thought rational and functional as kerengka the methodology of the re-interpretation of the Islam teaching.
Islamic as the movement of the Indonesian formation mempu him the role that was strategic, was seen from Moslems’s contribution in all peredabatan important about built Indonesia. Till at this time this process will continue to continue. Because the Islam mission was to head the just order and improved the social condition, including in the related and national context.
Historically this note was very real. Because of that how pelanjut the Islam history will play this role in the Indonesian context now.
Abuddin Nata (ed.), Problematika Politik Islam di Indonesia, Kata Pengantar Azyumardi Azra, Jakarta: Grasindo, 2002.
_______________, Metodologi Studi Islam, Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 2004, cet.9.
Abdul Munir Mulkhan, Runtuhnya Mitos Politik Santri Strategi Kebudayaan Dalam Islam, Pengantar Kuntowijoyo, Yogyakarta: Sipress, 1994Abdul Wahhab Khalaf, Politik Hukum Islam, Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana, 1995.
Azyumardi Azra, Renaisans Islam Asia Tenggara, Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 2000.
Al Chaidar, Zulfikar Salahuddin, Herdi Sahrasad, Federasi atau Disintegrasi Telaah Awal Wacana Unitaris versus Federasi Dalam Perspektif Islam Nasionalisme dan Sosial Demokrasi, Edi Riyanto, T. Taufiqulhadi, M Muntasir (ed.), Jakarta: Madani Press, 2000.
Anhar, “Nasionalisme Religius: Identitas Wawasan Kebangsaan Umat Islam Indonesia”, dalam Makalah dipresentasikan pada Annual Conference on Islamic Studies IX Tahun 2009, Surakarta tanggal 2 s.d.5 November 2009
Deliar Noer, Gerakan Moderen Islam di Indonesia 1900-1942, Jakarta: LP3ES, 1996. Cet kedelapan.
Faisal Ismail, Ketegangan Kreatif Peradaban Islam Idealisme Versus Realisme, Jakarta: Bakti Aksara Persada, 2003
Farid Abdul Khaliq, Fikih Politik Islam, Jakarta: Amzah, 2005, cet.1.
Imam Munawwir, Kebangkitan Islam dan Tantangan-Tantangan yang Didapai dari Masa Ke Masa, Surabaya: Bina Ilmu, 1984.
Imam Suprayogo, Kyai dan Politik Membaca Citra Politik Kyai, Malang: UIN Malang Press, 2009. Cet.II.
Jamali Sahrodi, Metodologi Studi Islam Menelusuri Jejak Hostoris Kajian Islam ala Sarjana Orientasli, Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia, 2008, cet.1.
Munawir Sjadzali, Islam dan Tata Negara Ajaran, Sejarah dan Pemikiran, Jakarta: UI Press, 1993
Nanang Tahqiq (ed), Politik Islam, Jakarta: Kencana, 2004, cet.1.
Taufiq Muhammad Asy Syawi, Syura Bukan Demokrasi, Bandung: Gema Insani Press, 1997, cet.1.
Zarkasji Abdul Salam, Pengadilan Surambi di Yogyakarta (Studi Historis tentang Pengadilan Agama di Yogyakarta Tahun 1755-1882), Yogyakarta: Proyek Perguruan Tinggi IAIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, 1999/2000.

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar