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Kamis, 30 Agustus 2012

THEMATIC commentary



Thematic commentaries (maudhu `i) is a method adopted by an exegete by gathering all the verses of the Koran, speak of a subject or theme tik (Maudu'i) which leads to a sense or purpose in thematic interpretation. Koran as a collection of word of Allah revealed in the form of revelation to the Prophet Muhammad that serve as guidance (huda) and way of life for mankind in the world would even in the afterlife. Kesemuannya it can be realized if the content of the Qur'an can be understood by the man himself who subsequently applied in everyday life. 

Within the framework of efforts to understand the Koran is through interpretation-penafiran. In this way all the expected content of the meaning of the Koran that is still shrouded in the text (§ lafa) can be opened so that it becomes something that is obvious. When viewed from the standpoint of the history of the diverse interpretations of the Koran course in the methods and forms of interpretation. The scholars have divided the methods of interpretation of the Koran to the four methods, namely: l ³ ³ tahl methods (analytic), the method summary ³ (general), the method muqar ³ n (comparison), and methods of Mau «'i (theme tik)

So the paper is simple, the writer tries to present one of four methods of TAFs ³ r, namely the method Mau «ui (theme tik) and the author presents in terms of meaning, history, forms, steps taken, keistemewaan and limitations. [1 ]

b. Interpretation of thematic understanding

Many terms that can be given to thematic interpretation. maudhu etymologically `i mean the theme or subject. [2] According to Ali Hasan Al-Aridh, Thematic Tafseer is a method adopted by an exegete by gathering all the verses of the Koran ynag talk about a subject or theme (maudhu` i ) which leads to a sense or purpose. [3] Al-Farmawi also give the notion of Thematic Interpretation is a method of collecting the verses of the Koran that have similar themes and directions and arrange them in the fall of the verses, then merangkainya with the information- statements and take a conclusion. [4] Meanwhile, according to Zahir bin Awadh, Tafsir Maudu'i namely: a method of Quranic verses pengeumpulan separate from the various letters in the Qur'an related to Opik (theme) is the same either lafa § Nor Law, and interpreted in accordance with the objectives of the Qur'an. [5]

Meanwhile Baqir Al-Sadr gave the sense, that the Interpretation Thematic namely: a method of interpretation that seeks to collect the verses of the Koran from a variety of letters and the berkaiatan pule with the issue or theme that is set before, then discuss and mengnalisa content of the verses are so into a unified whole. [6] Of the various terms stated above, it can be taken a conclusion that the interpretation Thematic is a method of interpretation of the Koran in which the exegete berupay Quranic verses collected from the various letters that have similar themes, thus leading to an understanding and common purpose as well.

Thematic History of Interpretation
Basically we can not determine with certainty the beginning of the birth of this metod thematic interpretation in the sense as we understand it now. Because, basically, although this mode of interpretation has to be found in the classical interpreters, however, the term `maudhu Tafsir i have not been popular for their use. But Zahir bin Awadh Al-Alamiy said, after making observations on the Book of Allah and the themes contained in it, then it becomes clear that in the Book of Allah himself has contained thematic tendencies such as Tafsir or Tafseer maudhu `i this. [7]

It can also be reiterated that the pembukuaannya period, in addition to ordinary methods of interpretation-style (classical), the method of thematic interpretation or commentary maudhu `i to examine specific issues go hand in hand with him. As Ibn al-Qayyim wrote the book At-AQS Pi ± ° ibbiyah miles Quran, Abu Ubaidah Majazul wrote the book about the Koran, Ar-Raqib al-Asfahani up Mufrodatul Quran, Abu Ja'far an-Nahas wrote An-Nasikh wa al-mansukh and others. Actually Quranic studies in modern times none that regardless of the interpretation of some verses of the Koran. [8]

D. This method forms the thematic interpretation or commentary maudhu `i

To further facilitate an understanding hello to the thematic interpretation or commentary maudhu `i, then we will put forward the forms of the approach taken in the method of thematic interpretation or commentary maudhu` i. First by taking one letter from the Koran, then the letter was examined in eseluruhannya from the beginning to the end of the letter mail, and then described the general and specific Objective, then look for links between the issues (themes) presented these verses is one unified whole and perfect with a single target as well.

As an example of the first form of thematic commentary or interpretation methods maudhu `i is such a review or interpret the letter mufassir Yasin. Based on studies he concluded that the letters Yasin can be divided into three interrelated parts, to be continued and lead to a problem. Let's say from the beginning of a letter to the verse which to-32 lead to an explanation of the apostolate of Muhammad. The second part of verse 33 to verse 44 menetengahkan about the arguments of proof of his form of Allah SWT breadth of knowledge and will. While the third part of verse 45 to the end to explain the circumstances and a variety of events during the Day of Resurrection. [9]
Then the three parts of the letter is basically a single theme, ie urge to believe in Allah, His Messenger and the Last Day.
The interpretation of the famous with the first feature of this method are:

Amud Na § ¬ ² oror Fi Tanasibil Wassuwar Yati.

By: Al-Baqa'i

An-Nabaul 'A § ³ m.
By: Dr. Muhammad Abdullah Darraj. [10]
The second form of assessment is to gather all * with the verses of the Koran deri various letters that have the same sasasran, then arrange them in an orderly decline, in addition to knowing the causes of the verse was revealed. Afterwards, give explanations, descriptions, notes and also set the Law of him. A second method is always used in the scientific assessment of the theme typewriter. So when we hear the term thematic interpretation or commentary maudhu `i then nothing is in question is to examine one theme among the themes of the Qur'an by the standards of the Qur'an as a whole. [11]

So if we see from this second bntuk, of course Thematic Tafsir or Tafseer maudhu `i provides a broad rung for researchers from different disciplines, so that they can reveal anything related to their field in the Koran in depth. Say for example an expert on the Law will focus on the verses pertaining to the laws or constitution,, an economist will be working on the verses pertaining degan economics, finance, production, and also for haasil infaq, as well as expert astrology, education and various other specialties.

E. The Steps in Mileage

There are several steps that must be taken for an exegete in maudhui interpretation methods, namely:
  • Decide in advance the issue / topic (theme) that will be reviewed, to determine this issue are encouraged to see "The Book of Tafsir Qur'an Al-Karim orientalis group works translated by Muhammad Fuad Al-Baqi.
  • Inventory (collect) the verses pertaining to the theme / topic of the week, (other than the above helped the book, can also in reading Al-Mu `jam Al-Al-Fa Li Mufahras § il Quran" by M. Fuad Al-Baqi '.
  • The chain sequence in accordance with the fall of the verse well and Madaniyahnya Makiyah, this can also be seen in "al-Itqon" by Al-Suyu ¯ I and "Al-Burh ± n" by Al-Zarkasyi.
  • understand the correlation (however its sabah ±) verses in each letter.
  • Arrange a discussion within the framework of a precise, systematic, complete and intact.
  • Complete discussion of the Hadith. So that the description becomes clearer and more perfect.
  • Learn the verses in a systematic and comprehensive way to collect the verses that contain similar terms, adjusting the common sense and specifically, the Mu ¯ allaq and Muqayyad, or verses that seem contradictory, so that all meet in one estuary so there is no coercion in interpretation. [12]
The formulation of the steps taken by the method of TAFs ³ r Want to «'i raised by Ali Hasan al-Aridh include: 

  • Collect all the Quranic verses are found in all letters relating to the theme of which was about to be reviewed.
  • Determine the order of the verses that dihipun that the periods decline and suggested causes of decline if it is possible.
  • Explain the absurd among the verses on each suratya and link between the verses with the verses that came after.
  • Create a theme sis when the study within the framework of a systematic and complete with outlinenya that covers all facets of the theme of the study.
  • Put forward-Hadith Hadith the Prophet Muhammad who spoke tentng theme of the study and explain the degree of Hadith-Hadith is to be more convincing to others who study the subject.
Refer to the kalam (expressions of Arabs and their poems) in explaining lafa-lafa § § contained in the verses that speak about the theme of study in explaining its meaning.

Study of verse-ayatyang talk about the study performed theme Mau «'i to all terms and abortion, bail lafa § 'Am, Khas, muqayyad, mu ¯ allaq, requirements, responsibilities, laws of jurisprudence, abrogated and mansukh (if any), and I'jaz balaghoh elements, attempts to integrate other texts allegedly contradictory to her or the Hadith-Hadith the Prophet Muhammad that are inconsistent with it, refusing to deliberate vagueness that was sown by those opposed to Islam, also called qira'ah wide range, apply the meaning of the verses on people's lives and do not deviate from the target themes addressed in the study. [13]

Both procedures or steps above, although expressed in slightly different ways but essentially they certainly berkaiatan each other and complement each other, so it appeared that these measures put the discussion in the preparation of a perfect skeleton. Zahir bin Awadh, more add extensive measures to be taken in using the method of TAFs ³ r Want to «'i, among others:

Interpret those verses that can be understood from her wisdom poses that these verses brought dantujuan of shari'ah.

Gave birth to the themes in the form of a perfect and complete descriptions are based on the terms of scientific research. [14]

Thus it is clear that the opinion of the three elements mentioned above stays put as a theme or topic of the first element and the highly preferred. This is the characteristic method of TAFs ³ r Want to «'i that differentiates it from other commentary.

Of the various measures mentioned above, we can see some similarities and some differences that must be taken for an exegete in using the method of thematic tafsir or interpretation of this maudhu `i. The equation is:
For an exegete must first specify the topic to be studied, then collect the verses are about the themes that have been determined and determining the sequence of paragraphs in accordance with the downs.

Determine the absurd from one verse to another verse den determines also the discussion in a framework of tepa and systematically covering all aspects of the theme study.

Suggested Hadith-Hadith the Prophet Muhammad who also explained that the theme has been determined.
While the difference is, it seems to us that Ali Hasan al-Aridh, he added more jauuh to explain the meanings of the verses talking about the theme of studies that have been specified, must refer to a lady mufassir lughot or Arabic poems.

F. Privileges and Limitations of Thematic Tafsir or Tafseer maudhu `i
As a method of interpretation of the Koran, then the method Mau «'i it has several features that can not be separated from several limitations.

Feature
This method will be far from the mistakes because he collects various paragraphs relating to the topic of discussion so that one interprets the verse to another verse.

With the method Mau «'i person will examine further able to provide something of thought and a full and complete answers about a subject matter (themes) that were examined. [15]
The resulting conclusions easy to understand. This is because it takes readers to the Qur'an instructions yangmengemukakan detailed discussions in one discipline.

With this method could also prove that the issues that touch the Koran open purely theoretical, or that can not be itrapkan in public life. But he can take us to the opinion of the Qur'an about the various problems of life are also included with the answers.

He can reinforce the functions of the holy book the Koran as well as the features we were able to prove the Qur'an.
This method allows one to reject the existence of contradictory verses in the Qur'an. [16]
2. Limitation
Still require the involvement of Interpretation - Interpretation of classical Tafsir sekalipunn Thematic Interpretation is also called modern edge), because there is no independent method of interpretation.
In accordance with the terminology that the Interpretation maudhu `i was only discussing a single topic or theme of the many themes in the Qur'an.
In applying this method not only requires a long time but also perseverance, thoroughness, skill and academic ability. [17]
So the thematic interpretation of this method are in fact not express the entire content of the verses of the Koran interpreted. It must be remembered that the discussion described or discovered just about the title set by mufassirnya, thereby exegete must always keep this in mind that he was not influenced by the content or the signals found in these verses in the subject. [18]
In a brief commentary or interpretation Thematic maudhu `i can be formulated as an interpretation that seeks answers to a problem with the Koran neighbors gather street verses related to it, and analyzed by Bantu sciences relevant to the issues discussed, so as to give birth to the concepts of the Qur'an intact neighbor problems. method relative new and considered in the interpretation of the Koran actual brangkat of a unified logical and interconnected with each other. So none of the contradictions of Quranic verses, it is increasingly clear as also stated in the Qur'an itself. Basic assumption is related to the principle of a very famous among the Qur'an exegete يفسر بعضه بعضا namely, that some verses of the Koran in his commentary to verse another.

REFERENCES
  • Al-Aridh, Ali Hasan. Historical Interpretation methodology. Jakarta, PT. Raja Grapindo Persada, 1994.
  • Al-Farmawiy, Abd al-Hayy. Al-Bidayah fi al-Tafsir al-Mau «'i. Cairo: al-| a «oroh al-'Arabiyah, 1977.
  • Al-Ma'i, Zahir bin Awadh al-TAFs Dirasat fi al-Mau r ³ «'I, 1997.
  • Al-Sadr, Muhammad Baqir. Tafsir Mau «'i wa pi Tajzi'i Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Karim. Beirut: al-Matb'at Ta'aruf, 1980.
  • Al-Qattan, Manna Khalil. Mab ± his fi 'Ulmil Quran. Raiyadh: D ± r al-Ma'arif, 1973.
  • Munawwir, Ahmad Warson. Dictionary Al-Munawwar. Yogyakarta, 1984.
  • Shihab, M. Quraish. Insights Qur'an. London: Mizan, 1996.

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